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This unit supports the state’s annual personnel evaluations, the appeals process for classified employees, consults with agencies on issues involving performance management, advises managers and supervisors in goals writing, measurement and effective monitoring techniques.







Program Administrator:
Maggie Toal
Performance Management and Development Administrator

Program Support:
Jeff Hazelton
Performance Management and Development Senior Analyst

Administrative Code

It is the responsibility of every manager and supervisor to honestly evaluate the work performance of his/her employee at least once a year. Performance evaluation is not only a management right; it is a management duty (OAC 123:1-29-01, 123:1-29-02, and 123:1-29-03).

Performance Management


The Rater is an employee’s direct supervisor. The Rater sets employees’ goals, monitors performance, provides feedback, and provides an annual evaluation of employees’ performance. 

The Employee is the recipient of the Rater’s feedback. The Employee should also be engaged in his/her performance by proposing goals and seeking development opportunities. 

The Reviewer manages the Rater and may also assign work to employees while indirectly managing their performance. Reviewers provide the first level of approval for employees’ performance evaluations. 

Human Resources
Human Resources sets each agency’s performance management strategy as well as the Performance Evaluation Policy. HR is a great resource for Raters when they have questions about managing employee performance or navigating through ePerformance. Human Resources provides the final level of approval for all employee performance evaluations.

Best Practices

Common Mistakes

Frequently Asked Questions



For general assistance with performance management, a good place to start is the online Performance Management Guide.  This Guide is for all employees regardless of job level or role.  It discusses topics such as those listed below.

  • Performance Management Cycle
  • Setting Expectations, Goals, and Competencies
  • Providing Feedback
  • Developing Employee Performance

ePerformance Job Aids and other resources can be found by visiting http://das.ohio.gov/ePerftoolkit.  Additionally, the ePerformance team can be contacted by emailing ePerformance@das.ohio.gov or calling 614-728-8973.

Raters are also strongly encouraged to participate in Lead Ohio: Foundations of Supervision.  Course schedules as well as registration links may be found via myOhio’s myLearning button.  This professional development opportunity has three (3) courses directly related to performance management.

  1. Effective Goal Setting
  2. Coaching and Developing Others
  3. Evaluating your Employees

Additionally, a workshop series that coincides with the Performance Management and Development Cycle is also available, entitled Roadmap for Managing and Developing Performance.

Finally, your agency’s Human Resources and/or Labor Relations staff can help with performance management questions.


Competency Clusters

List of Competencies and Descriptions

Position Competency Mapping

Position Competencies FAQ

Competency Behavioral Anchors

Competency Development Guide

Competency Development Worksheet

The Competency Assessment Tools are organized by cluster below.



Supervisors, please click the below Supervisor Tool links to access the tools used when assessing your employees' competency.

Employees, please click the below Employee Tool links to access to tools used when assessing your own competency.


 Customer Focus  Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Embracing Diversity and Inclusion  Supervisor Tool Employee Tool


Applying Technical Proficiency

Definition:  Competencies that demonstrate specific technical expertise while performing tasks.

Supervisors, please click the below Supervisor Tool links to access the tools used when assessing your employees' competency.

Employees, please click the below Employee Tool links to access to tools used when assessing your own competency.

 Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment  Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information  Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials Supervisor Tool  Employee Tool 
 Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment Supervisor Tool  Employee Tool 
 Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Working with Computers Supervisor Tool Employee Tool 

Assessing, Interpreting, and Explaining Information

Definition:  Competencies that demonstrate the assessment and interpretation of information, as well as providing an explanation to assist others in understanding how the information may impact them or their interests

Supervisors, please click the below Supervisor Tool links to access the tools used when assessing your employees' competency.

Employees, please click the below Employee Tool links to access to tools used when assessing your own competency.

 Analyzing Data or Information Supervisor Tool  Employee Tool 
 Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards  Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Evaluating the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Making Decisions and Solving Problems Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Processing Information Supervisor Tool Employee Tool
 Thinking Creatively Supervisor Tool Employee Tool

Building Relationships

Definition:  Competencies that examine the ability to influence decisions through building and strengthening relationships with others.

Supervisors, please click the below Supervisor Tool links to access the tools used when assessing your employees' competency.

Employees, please click the below Employee Tool links to access to tools used when assessing your own competency.

 Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, and Staff  Supervisor Tool  Employee Tool 
 Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships Supervisor Tool  Employee Tool 
 Influencing or Selling to Others Supervisor  Tool Employee  Tool
 Providing Consultation and Advice to Others Supervisor  Tool Employee  Tool
 Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others Supervisor  Tool Employee  Tool

Collecting and Assembling Information

Definition:  Competencies that demonstrate gathering and compiling information in various ways.

Supervisors, please click the below Supervisor Tool links to access the tools used when assessing your employees' competency.

Employees, please click the below Employee Tool links to access to tools used when assessing your own competency.

 Documenting/Recording Information
 Getting Information
 Identifying Objects, Actions and Events

Developing, Learning, and Motivating

Definition:  Competencies that involve imparting, obtaining, and improving the skills of others and self.

Supervisors, please click the below Supervisor Tool links to access the tools used when assessing your employees' competency.

Employees, please click the below Employee Tool links to access to tools used when assessing your own competency.

 Coaching and Developing Others Supervisor
 Developing and Building Teams Supervisor
 Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates  Supervisor
 Training and Teaching Others Supervisor
 Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge Supervisor

Planning and Organizing

Definition:  Competencies that examine planning and organizing activities and work in order to sustain operations.

Supervisors, please click the below Supervisor Tool links to access the tools used when assessing your employees' competency.

Employees, please click the below Employee Tool links to access to tools used when assessing your own competency.

 Coordinating the Work Activities of Others
 Developing Objectives and Strategies 
 Monitoring and Controlling Resources 
 Organizing, Planning and Prioritizing Work
 Performing Administrative Activities 
 Scheduling Work and Activities 
 Staffing Organizational Units 

Serving the Public

Definition:  Competencies that demonstrate professional interactions with customers and constituents external to state government.

Supervisors, please click the below Supervisor Tool links to access the tools used when assessing your employees' competency.

Employees, please click the below Employee Tool links to access to tools used when assessing your own competency.

 Assisting and Caring for Others Supervisor
 Communicating With People Outside the Agency  Supervisor
 Performing for or Working Directly with the Public Supervisor 

Using Physical Aptitude

Definition:  Competencies that demonstrate the use of various physical skills and abilities to perform work tasks.

Supervisors, please click the below Supervisor Tool links to access the tools used when assessing your employees' competency.

Employees, please click the below Employee Tool links to access to tools used when assessing your own competency.

 Controlling Machines and Processes  Supervisor
 Handling and Moving Objects   Supervisor
 Performing General Physical Activities  Supervisor

Performance Management Guide

Click here to download the complete Performance Management Guide.

Click the below sections to focus on a specific subject area from the Guide.

Introduction to Performance Management and Development

Performance management and development is commonly known as a communication practice by which and leaders are accountable for establishing and adjusting performance expectations and job goals, identifying development opportunities, giving ongoing feedback and coaching regularly, recognizing and evaluating performance results.  In other words, it is a continuous practice of planning, coaching, engaging, evaluating, and developing employee performance.

The tabs on this webpage contain brief information about the best way to accomplish performance management tasks.  The guide in its entirety can be found by clicking here.

Understanding the State of Ohio’s formal performance evaluation cycle and related processes will benefit supervisors and their employees by:

  1. Informing employees of the agency mission and strategic goals as well as the performance expectations and goals supervisors establish for employees;
  2. Informing employees of their progress toward achieving their performance expectations;
  3. Improving employee performance and productivity;
  4. Strengthening supervisor and employee work relationships and improving communication with employees;
  5. Developing the knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees; and
  6. Recognizing the accomplishments and contributions of employees.

By managing employee performance more effectively, supervisors will have more time to accomplish their own work.

Performance Management Cycle

The State of Ohio's Performance Management and Development Cycle consists of three major phases that occur in a continuous loop:

  1. Plan
  2. Engage
  3. Evaluate

There are two additional components within the cycle:

  1. Coach
  2. Develop

Each phase of the cycle is essential to effectively managing performance.  While each agency’s Performance Evaluation Policy provides the cycle dates for completing evaluations and perhaps for creating initial goals in the ePerformance system, the phases illustrated above should occur on a regular, frequent basis.  These regular conversations can be informal; however, frequent meetings are very helpful, but are not required.

Plan Phase

In ePerformance, expectations and goals are set at the beginning of the process within the Establish Evaluation Criteria step.  Related job aids can be found in the ePerformance Toolkit.  Depending on the specific position, five (5) or fewer goals and performance expectations are recommended for each performance evaluation cycle.

Performance expectations are the requirements for work product quantity, quality, timeliness, and results that apply to regular and routine job duties.  Performance expectations are the same for every employee performing the same job, so if multiple supervisors in an agency oversee employees in the same classification performing the same work, all supervisors should agree on the performance expectations for that work.

Goals are specific, measurable tasks or actions which drive performance toward achievement.  Supporting elements of goals include:

  • Agreed-upon goal statements between supervisors and employees;
  • Activities and work products that are created by employees to support the agency’s purpose or mission; and
  • Duties that are to be fulfilled which are reflected by employee behaviors.

Note that goals can be different for different employees.

To write an effective goal, supervisors need to:

  • Understand what needs to be achieved, improved, maintained, or discontinued;
  • Make the goal challenging but not impossible;
  • Identify measurable outcomes for the goals;
  • Provide a tight, but still achievable, timeline for goal achievement;
  • Relate the goal to the agency’s mission (goals that provide indirect support for the agency’s mission may require more explanation to employees); and
  • Avoid setting the goals so narrowly that employees ignore other important aspects of their jobs.       

There are several methods of goal-setting, two of which are Cascading Goals and SMART Goals.  Supervisors may want to apply each depending on the type of work performed.  The following table discusses these two methods of goal-setting and the circumstances in which they are most and least successful.


Method Explanation

Good for:

Does not work well for:

Cascading Goals

Goals are set from the top-down and goals at each subsequent level should link back to the goal at the level above.

The first two or three levels of executive management.

The entire organization.  Not every goal needs to tie directly back to a supervisor’s goal.  Also, cascading through the entire organization takes a long time as each level’s goals have to be completed before moving on to the next level.


A format for writing goals in which the goal must be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound.

Most employees.  Also used to ensure pertinent information is included in the goal.

Goals that need to be relevant over a long period of time, such as a year, or some tasks that require innovation.

There are also several different types of goals, which are outlined in the following table.


Method Explanation

Good for:

Job/Work Goals

Goals that clearly describe tasks that align to the job as outlined in the position description.

Emphasizing or giving focus to specific aspects of a job.

Project Goals

Goals the employee pursues with specific beginning and end dates that may be above and beyond routine duties.

Breaking up work into meaningful milestones based upon a specific timeline.

Development Goals

Goals that specify what employees will learn during a given time period.

Expanding knowledge and skills.

Improvement Goals

Goals designed to change employee behavior and performance outcomes.

Documenting performance deficiencies and measuring against desired outcomes.

Writing goals may seem like a daunting task for supervisors.  Therefore, supervisors should begin by considering the agency’s purpose (e.g., mission statement).  Every goal, directly or indirectly, should help employees achieve the agency’s purpose, advancing the strategy set forth by agency leadership. 

It may initially be difficult to create measurable outcomes for the goals.  The best methods to measure work products are usually quality, quantity, cost, and/or timeliness.  When using quality as a measure of job performance, supervisors can use descriptive measures and examples so the employee will understand the level of performance expected.

A competency is the observable and measurable knowledge, skills, and abilities required for successful job performance.  The State of Ohio utilizes 42 competencies that supervisors use to evaluate their employees.

There are three categories of competencies:

  1. Statewide:  apply to every employee in the State.  Ohio’s Statewide Competency is “Customer Focus.”
  2. Agency-wide:  apply to every employee of a given agency, chosen by agency executives.
  3. Classification:  apply to every employee in a classification.  In 2016, the State assigned three competencies to all classifications, which automatically appear in all ePerformance-based evaluation documents.

Overall, the total number of competencies that should be evaluated, including statewide, agency-wide, and classification competencies, should be fewer than 5 if possible.  The list of the State’s ePerformance competencies can be found in the ePerformance Toolkit.

Communicating Expectations and Goals

Within the first few weeks of the evaluation cycle, supervisors should relay their expectations and goals to each employee (e.g., by January 15 for January’s annual cycle) during a one-on-one meeting with each individual employee to encourage open discussion and allow for clarification if necessary.

It is important to explain what specific actions and behaviors will be required for the employees to receive a “Meets Expectations” rating as well as an "Exceeds Expectations" rating on their performance evaluations.

The actions and behaviors required to earn the “Meets Expectations” rating should be the same for all employees in the same classification performing the same job duties in the agency.  The table below outlines the basic rating definitions that can be used to help define each item’s expected actions and behaviors.



  1. Does Not Meet

Fails to meet standards (e.g., employees with this rating fail to satisfactorily perform most aspects of the position; performance levels are below established requirements for the job; employee requires close guidance and direction in order to complete routine assignments).

  1. Meets Expectations

Fully meets standards (e.g., achieves acceptable standards of performance, expectations and requirements; results can be expected which are timely and accurate; performance constitutes what is expected of a qualified, experienced employee performing in this position).

  1. Exceeds Expectations

Exceeds standards (e.g., consistently goes above the communicated expectations for the job responsibility or goal; demonstrates a unique understanding of work beyond assigned area of responsibility; achievements are obvious to subordinates, peers, managers and customers).

Anytime a supervisor's performance expectations or goals for an employee changes, the supervisor should discuss those changes with the impacted employee as soon as possible.


 When supervisors invest time in developing their employees, they are providing a specific kind of feedback called coaching.  Regular communication around development — having coaching conversations — is essential.  In fact, according to research, the single most important supervisor competency that separates highly effective supervisors from average ones is coaching.

Coaching can be used to reinforce effective behavior as well as to correct ineffective behavior.  When coaching employees, supervisors should:

  • Give advice based on past experiences;

  • Provide guidance about how employees can develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities;

  • Provide support when employees need help;

  • Provide confidence that employees can accomplish their goals or that their actions are on the right course; and

  • Steer employees toward the competencies they should develop for future roles.
The State follows a question-based coaching model.  This means that, instead of telling employees what they should do, supervisors should try asking them targeted questions to help them discover their next steps, solution alternatives, or final decision.  At its most basic, the State’s coaching model is outlined below.




Assist employee in reviewing current performance behaviors


Help the employee explore possibilities to identify new performance behaviors


Set expectations and supporting steps to be taken – agree to start/end dates supported by an action plan


Support new behaviors with defined measures and recognize achievement; or identify additional improvement areas

Hold Accountable

Hold the employee responsible and accountable by setting start/end dates to move forward and provide an action plan


Engage Phase

 Engaging employees in their performance and providing them with feedback is the part of the Performance Management and Development Cycle that supervisors will conduct daily. 

To provide more effective, accurate feedback, supervisors need to train their brain to be a better observer of employee job performance.  When observing employees’ job performance, supervisors should:

  • Look and listen for specific actions and words that demonstrate something about an employee’s performance;
  • Observe as many details as possible;
  • Get information from multiple sources if possible (e.g., direct observation, reports from coworkers, inspection of work products);
  • Avoid comparing the employee’s past job performance when observing current performance;
  • Avoid allowing the situation or setting to influence your observations; and
  • Avoid evaluating the performance while observing it.

One of the best ways to track and remember employee behaviors is to keep a performance log for each employee.  The performance log could be an electronic document, an email folder, or a paper file.  The logs should include descriptions of employees’ actions and words, not evaluations of their performance.  This will help the supervisor recall employees’ actual behaviors when they are ready to evaluate their overall performance.

Providing Feedback

Providing feedback is an extremely important part of being a supervisor.  Providing feedback will do the following.

  • Adjust employees' performance to meet the goals and performance expectations their respective supervisor has set.
  • Result in employees putting more time and effort into the tasks the supervisor has commented on, which usually leads to improving their performance on those tasks.
  • Prevent employees from getting feedback from other sources such as their coworkers, other supervisors, or even the tasks themselves.  This may lead employees to put more effort into the tasks they can get the most feedback from rather than the tasks the supervisor thinks are most critical.

The best way to provide feedback is to:

  • Make it timely.  Provide feedback as close to when you observed their performance as possible.
  • Make it specific.  Detailed examples are more likely to be accepted by employees.
  • Make it a regular occurrence.  You do not have to hold a formal meeting to provide performance feedback, but you should provide some form of feedback at least a few times a month.
  • Ensure the focus is on aspects of job performance that are in the employee’s control to change.
  • Recognize and respect individual employee preferences in receiving feedback (e.g., face-to-face or written; group setting or privately).
  • Ensure the feedback is about tasks that are critical to performance, not just the tasks for which feedback is easy to provide.
  • Remember to provide feedback about an employee’s strengths.  Feedback about strengths may improve performance more than feedback about weaknesses.

Providing constructive feedback may be one of supervisors' least favorite tasks to perform.  Unfortunately, delaying or avoiding negative feedback will cause more harm than good.  Consequences of delaying or avoiding constructive feedback include:

  • Letting the problem last for so long that it is only addressed in anger rather than with constructive feedback.
  • Providing too much constructive feedback at one time, causing the employee to escalate his or her defensive behaviors.
  • Increasing the employee’s perception of unfairness when the supervisor rates him or her lower than he or she expects to be rated.
  • Lowering the work unit/department/division/agency’s productivity.

The best way to provide constructive feedback is to:

  • Deliver it in private.  Never provide constructive feedback publicly.
  • Make it specific.  Include details about what behaviors are causing the poor performance and a specific plan for improving their performance.  Employees are likely to perceive constructive feedback as inaccurate, so providing specific details can help employees accept the feedback.
  • Deliver it soon after you observed the unsatisfactory performance.  If there are many things to improve; however, spread the negative feedback over a few conversations.
  • Avoid the feedback sandwich technique in which a supervisor surrounds negative feedback with positive feedback.  It demotivates good employees by diminishing their good work and weakens the message for poorly performing employees, who will only focus on the positive feedback you provided.

Evaluate Phase

The most important step supervisors should take for performance evaluations is to make sure that supervisors and employees have the same expectations of how the evaluation scales will be used.  The State has two evaluation scales:

Individual Goal and Competency Ratings

Summary and Overall Performance Ratings

Does Not Meet

Does Not Meet

Meets Expectations

Needs Improvement

Exceeds Expectations

Meets Expectations

Exceeds Expectations


A rating of “Meets Expectations” means that the employee performed his or her job successfully.  His or her job performance was not average, mediocre, or inadequate; rather, it met expectations, and the expectations should have been set so that employees performing at that level support the agency in meeting its mission.

Remember that before a supervisor begins rating, and as early as when he or she told employees what their expectations were, the supervisor should have defined what behaviors and/or results will earn a “Meets Expectations” rating.  If more than one supervisor at an agency supervises the same classification, all of those supervisors should agree on what “Meets Expectations” consists of for common goals and competencies.  

Remember that, during the Plan phase, behaviors and results were defined that would earn a rating of “Exceeds Expectations” or “Outstanding.”  It is now time to revisit these definitions during the Evaluate phase.  Supervisors may find that the definitions were too relaxed or too difficult to achieve; if this is the case, redefine expectations and clearly communicate the changes along with the reasoning to the impacted employees.  The more clearly a supervisor defines his or her expectations, the easier the Evaluate phase will be. 

While performance evaluations will always be somewhat subjective in nature, supervisors can make their observations and comments as objective as possible.  The following examples demonstrate how to alter comments about attitudes to contain more objective and actionable information.

Performance meets expectations:

Subjective attitude

“You are a good team player.”  While it is important to identify that the employee works well with others, there is no information to indicate why the employee works well with others.

Objective behavior and results

“I saw you consistently demonstrate good teamwork skills when you listened patiently to your coworkers and helped them find solutions during the rollout of the new software.”  The supervisor specifically described what behaviors he or she observed, making it likely that the employee will continue to conduct him or herself that way in the future.

Performance exceeds expectations:

 Subjective attitude

“You bring great professionalism to the office.”  The employee will not know exactly what actions he or she took that the supervisor thought were great.

Objective behavior and results

“I frequently hear you praise the efforts of your coworkers and you always take time to find an answer or the correct person to ask when your coworkers ask you a question.”  The supervisor included the actions the employee took that makes him or her great to work with. 

Performance does not meet expectations: 

Subjective attitude

“You display a bad attitude during meetings.”  While the employee will know his or her behavior doesn’t meet expectations, he or she will not know what actions could be improved.

Objective behavior and results

“You are not supporting your coworkers when you roll your eyes when you hear an idea you don’t agree with during meetings.  I have also heard you cut the other person off to say what you think is wrong with the idea in multiple instances.”  The employee will know what behaviors to fix in the future. 

Avoiding Rater Bias

When a person evaluates someone else, his or her evaluation reflects not only the person being assessed but also his or her own built-in biases.  Supervisors should be aware of their possible evaluation biases so they can work to eliminate them from the assessment process.  Some common biases include the following.



Lack of Differentiation

The supervisor lacks confidence to defend his/her rating – or is reluctant to pass judgment – and compensates by providing a similar rating to everyone on the team.  Examples of how this may look include:

  • Leniency – everyone gets high ratings;
  • Severity – everyone gets low ratings; and
  • Central tendency – everyone gets a safe rating at the mid-point of the scale.

Recency Effect

The rating represents performance seen at the end of the evaluation period.

Halo/Horns Effect

The employee is highly competent (or incompetent) in one area, and the supervisor extends that rating to all areas being reviewed.

Personal Bias (Favoritism)

This occurs when a supervisor allows his or her impressions or personal feelings about an employee to impact the rating(s).


The supervisor views an employee as being similar to self and provides a rating more favorable to the employee than to others who are seen as dissimilar.

If a supervisor is experiencing any of the above biases, he or she might seek out a trusted supervisory peer or a Human Resources representative to confidentially review the observations and comments prior to presenting them to the employee.  This will not only give the supervisor an outside opinion, but it may also help uncover and work toward correcting his or her biases. 

Performance Evaluation Meetings

The goal of the supervisor’s meeting with the employee is understanding.  At the end of the meeting, the employee should understand what his or her ratings are and why the supervisor provided the ratings.  The employee does not need to agree with the ratings, but he or she does need to understand them.  Understanding is an easy goal to achieve if the supervisor has been providing feedback about the employee’s performance and goal progress throughout the year.  The performance evaluation meeting offers supervisors the chance to discuss performance as a whole and repeat any important feedback.

When conducting performance meetings, supervisors should:

  • Encourage their employees to read their performance evaluations before the meeting.  This way, employees can take the time to understand and react to the ratings in private.
  • Valued performers will benefit the most from a meeting focused on their strengths and achievements.  These employees are likely to initiate conversations about what they can do to improve their future performance.
  • Poor performers will benefit the most from a meeting focused on the steps they need to take for immediate improvement. 
  • Have the performance evaluation and supporting documentation available.
  • Follow any agency-specific performance evaluation meeting guidelines.


 Supervisors may not always see the need to develop employees’ performance, but this is something they should strive for.  Not only does developing employees’ performance deepen their knowledge, skills, and abilities, but it also shows them that supervisors are engaged and interested in their improvement. 

Supervisors have some key responsibilities in supporting performance development within their respective team, as outlined below.

Collaborate to establish clear, measurable expectations and goals.

Prepare for development discussions.

Guide performance to ensure work is consistently high quality.

Give constructive examples for improvements and celebrate accomplishments.

Ensure that individual tasks contribute to department goals.

Hold employees accountable for meeting performance development goals that have been clearly communicated.

Identify performance issues and set a clear course for correcting them.

Document issues and monitor performance development progress.

Similarly, employees have their own responsibilities within performance development, too.

Collaborate to set expectations and specific goals.

Prepare for related discussions.

Help obtain feedback and resources to meet performance goals.

Know the priorities for the position and department.

Assist in sharing professional development goals and understand how they relate to department goals.

Record instances of extra effort exerted that led to a positive impact.

Identify performance issues and set a clear course for correcting or improving the issues.

Initiate the Career Development Plan.

Provide the opportunity to discuss difficulties in performing work and/or meeting goals.

Come to career development coaching sessions with a focused agenda.

The ePerformance system has two methods for documenting performance improvement:

  • The Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) should be used when performance is not meeting expectations.  Its purpose is to document the issue, what steps will be taken to correct the issue, how the performance improvement will be measured, and what the timeline for improvement is.  Supervisors should use the PIP as an opportunity to provide in-depth, targeted coaching for employees who are not meeting overall performance expectations.
  • The Career Development Plan (CDP) should be used when an employee would like to voluntarily improve some aspect of his or her performance.  Because the CDP is a voluntary process, there should not be punishment or other consequences for not meeting expectations.  Supervisors should also encourage employees to use the self-evaluation feature in ePerformance when they are working on a CDP.

Both the CDP and the PIP can work with or be independent of another performance document, such as an annual or ad hoc evaluation.  If a supervisor rates an employee overall as anything below “Meets Expectations,” he or she will need to create a PIP for that employee.  More information about how these documents work in the system can be found in the ePerformance Toolkit.  Each agency’s Performance Evaluation Policy has specific information about how the agency uses these features.

Key Considerations

  • If a supervisor is within a cabinet agency, he or she must use the ePerformance system to evaluate employee performance.
  • Supervisors are considered the owner of their employees’ evaluation documents.  Responsibilities include creation, documentation, and presentation of the evaluation document to the employee.
  • Supervisors must conduct a performance evaluation for every bargaining unit and classified exempt employee.  If direct reports include individuals who are unclassified, supervisors should contact their respective agency’s Human Resources office for specific details.
  • Supervisors must perform evaluations annually based on a 12-month evaluation period, or cycle.  More frequent evaluations are allowed, but an evaluation period longer than 12 months may be an exception that is approved by their respective Human Resources office.
  • Supervisors must identify accountabilities, goals and performance expectations, and behaviors applicable to each employee and communicate them to the employee.
  • Supervisors must hold regular meetings with each employee to review goals and performance expectations, identifying performance strengths and areas for development in the final evaluation.
  • Supervisors must conduct a meeting with each employee to review and discuss the final evaluation.  Each employee must be provided with a copy of the evaluation.
  • When evaluating performance, supervisors must not consider leave taken in accordance with the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).  Additionally, FMLA taken must not influence any ratings given.
  • Employees must be given the opportunity to provide written comments and feedback regarding their annual evaluations.
  • Classified employees who are in a probationary status must receive an evaluation prior to both the midpoint and end of the probationary period.

Other Resources

The State offers performance management and development tools in many forms.  The ePerformance Toolkit contains system job aids, quick reference guides, a list of available competencies, and the Statewide Performance Evaluation policy.

Another tool is the State’s Competency Development Guide which is a resource to assist all employees in understanding, developing, and demonstrating the competencies required for individual and organizational success.  A related resource is the Competency Assessment Tools, which are designed as a way for both supervisors and employees to collaborate on current competency demonstration while establishing an action plan to expand competency demonstration.

The DAS Human Resources Division (HRD), Office of Talent Management (OTM), Office of Learning and Professional Development also offers several performance management and development courses to supervisors through the Lead Ohio: Foundations of Supervision program (a mandatory training program for new supervisors).  These courses include:

  • Effective Goal Setting;
  • Coaching and Developing Others; and
  • Evaluating Your Employees.

As a complement to these Lead Ohio: Foundations of Supervision courses, Office of Talent Management offers a six-workshop series entitled Roadmap for Managing and Developing Performance.  This workshop series is designed to ensure that supervisors understand the performance management and development process, as well as the tools and resources available, and become more aware of their contributions to organizational goals.  Five of these workshops align to each phase within the Performance Management and Development Cycle with a sixth workshop available online as an introduction.

Exempt as well as Information Technology employees can also take advantage of the Performance Management and Development learning program as well as the State of Ohio Competency Clusters learning program available in Learning on Demand.

Finally, the State Library of Ohio offers many resources regarding performance management and development.  A librarian can help you locate resources that directly address your performance management and development questions.

Reference List

The following is a list of references that were used to create this Guide.  State employees can access many of these references through the State Library of Ohio.

Grote, D. (2011).  How to be good at performance appraisals.  Boston:  Harvard Business Review Press.

Locke, A. E. & Latham G. P. (2002).  Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey.  American Psychologist, 57(9), 705-717.

Witt, L. A. (1998).  Enhancing organizational goal congruence: A solution to organizational politics.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(4), 666-674.

Murphy, K. R. & Cleveland, J. N. (1995).  Understanding Performance Appraisal.  Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Latham, G. P. (2004).  The motivational benefits of goal-setting.  Academy of Management Executive, 18(4), 126-129

Valcour, M. (2014).  You Can’t Be a Great Manager If You’re Not a Good Coach.  Harvard Business Review.  Retrieved from


Mueller-Hanson, R. A. & Pulakos, E. D. (2015).  Putting the “performance” back in performance management.  SHRM-SIOP Science of HR White Paper Series.  Society for Human Resources Management and Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.; Bailey, S. (2014, May 13).  The pay-for-performance fallacy.  Talent Management.

Landy, F. J. & Farr, J. L. (1983).  The measurement of work performance: Methods, theory, and applications.  New York: Academic Press.; Murphy, K. R. & Cleveland, J. N. (1995)

National Research Council (1991).  Pay for performance: Evaluating performance appraisal and merit pay.  Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

Fiske, T., & Taylor, S. E. (1984).  Social Cognition.  London: Addison-Wesley.

London, M., Mone, E. M., & Scott, J. C. (2004).  Performance management and assessment:  Methods for improved rater accuracy and employee goal setting.  Human Resource Management, 43(4), 319-336.;  Murphy, K. R. & Cleveland, J. N. (1995); Roch,

S. G. & O’Sullivan, B. J. (2003).  Frame of reference rater training issues: Recall, time and behavior observation training.  International Journal of Training and Development, 7(2), 93-107.; 

Thornton, G. C. & Zorich, S. (1980).  Training to improve observer accuracy.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(3), 351-354.   

DeNisi, A. S. & Peters, L. H. (1996).  Organization of information I memory and the performance appraisal process: Evidence from the field.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(6), 717-737; Woehr, 

D. J. & Feldman, J. (1993).  Processing objective and question order effects on the causal relation between memory and judgment in performance appraisal:  The tip of the iceberg.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 232-241.

Ilgen, D. R., Peterson, R. B., Martin, B. A., & Boeschen, D. A. (1981).  Supervisor and subordinate reactions to performance appraisal sessions.  Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 28, 311-330.

Ilgen, D. R., Fisher, C. D., & Taylor, M. S. (1979).  Consequences of individual feedback on behavior in organizations.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(4), 349-371.

Kluger, A. N. & DeNisi, A. (1996).  The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory.  Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254-284.;  Northcraft, G. B., Schmidt, A. M., & Ashford, S. J. (2011).  Feedback and the rationing of time and effort among competing tasks.  Journal of Applied Psychology,

96(5), 1076-1086.

Larsen, J. R. (1989).  The dynamic interplay between employees’ feedback-seeking strategies and supervisors’ delivery of performance feedback.  Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 408-422.

Liner v. Montgomery County Engineer, State of Ohio State Personnel Board of Review 2013-REM-02-0080 (2014).

Ilgen, D. R., Fisher, C. D., & Taylor, M. S. (1979); Landy, F. J. & Farr, J. L. (1983); Liden, R. C. & Mitchell, T. R. (1985).  Reactions to feedback: The role of attributions.  Academy of Management Journal, 28(2), 291-308.

State of Oklahoma Training and Development, Office of Management and Enterprise Services, Human Capital Management. Performance Management Process. Oklahoma City, OK: Office of Management and Enterprise Services.

Managing Employee Performance (2015).  Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/managingemployeeperformance.aspx

Cascio, W. F. & Aguinis, H. (2011).  Applied Psychology in Human Resource Management (7th ed.).  Boston: Prentice Hall. 


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Performance Engagement Community

The Performance Engagement Community (PEC) serves as a forum where members can share best practices, tools, and possible resources associated with Performance Management & Development.  Our goal is to foster an effective means of communication across agency lines, while connecting human resources professionals across the State. 

Understanding current and ever-changing workloads, our approach to this Community is very flexible and member-friendly, consisting of:

  • Structured Teleconferences (1-2 per quarter, 30-60 min)
  • All Hands Meetings (1-2 annually, 2-3 hours)

Our hope is that this community can bring about an engaging experience for our members, while simultaneously identifying and delivering material that will benefit all State employees within Performance Management & Development.

If you are an interested Human Resources professional, please email ePerformance@das.ohio.gov for more details!

Performance Engagement Community Current and Upcoming Events 
Event Date
All Hands Forum September 2021
Previous Meetings & Session Material 
Date Agenda Summary Notes / Slides
7/21/2021 PDF                     PDF      Click here for recording 
5/4/2021 PDF                     PDF      Click here for recording
2/9/2021 PDF PDF     Click here for recording
12/02/2020 PDF PDF
8/20/2020 PDF PDF
5/06/2020 PDF PDF
3/04/2020 PDF PDF
10/23/2019 PDF PDF
6/12/2019 PDF PDF
4/17/2019 PDF PDF
2/26/2019 PDF PDF
12/04/2018 N/A PDF

Workshop Series

Monthly Spotlights

The Learning on Demand (LOD) Monthly Spotlight is a feature distributed by the Office of Talent Management (OTM) that directly engages and educates employees on topics, trends and methodologies associated with Performance Management and Development.  These spotlights encourage the use of Learning on Demand and highlight links to various courses, videos and subject matter related to the monthly topic. 

UPDATE: As of March 2020, all Monthly Spotlights will feature a section devoted to ePerformance.  This section will provide useful tips and tricks for navigating the system and effectively conducting a performance evaluation.